Kékfrankos… Blaufränkisch… Lemberger

What do you mean you never heard of any of those grapes? For one, they are all synonyms of the same grape, just from different regions. The grape in question is a black-skinned wine grape grown widely in Austria and Hungary, and to a lesser extent in neighboring Germany, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Croatia. Miniscule quantities are also grown in the United States, most notably in New York’s Finger Lakes but can also be found in various parts of Washington state (the Rattlesnake Hills, Horse Heaven Hills, Yakima Valley), and such far-flung states as California, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Colorado. The common feature in Blaufrankisch wines from all of these places is a fruit-forward profile with aromas of spiced black cherries.

In Austria, Blaufränkisch is the second most popular red-wine variety behind Zweigelt – a crossing of Blaufränkisch with Austria’s other signature red variety, Saint-Laurent. Blaufränkisch is grown in almost every Austrian wine region to some extent, but its stronghold is unquestionably Burgenland. Classic Austrian Blaufränkisch wines are intensely colored, medium-bodied reds with brooding, black-fruit flavors and a hint of peppery spice. Those made around Lake Neusiedl, and in Sudburgenland, can be particularly full-bodied and spicy.

In Hungary, where it is known as Kékfrankos, the variety occupies almost 20,000 acres (8100 ha) in total – nearly three times its Austrian coverage. The majority of this is located in the vast but little-known Kunsag region, where it is rarely made into anything intended for export. Its other Hungarian homes include Sopron in the northwest (on the eastern shore of Lake Neusiedl) and Eger in the northeast. Both of these regions have strong histories of wine production, and have the potential (in the right hands) to lead Hungary into a new era as a wine-producing nation, with Kékfrankos as their flagship grape. It has already played a pivotal role in Hungary’s most famous red wine, Egri Bikaver, better known as Bull’s Blood.

Blaufränkisch was long thought to be genetically identical to Pinot Noir, and even Gamay Noir, which explains its Croatian and Bulgarian nicknames Borgogna and Gamé. Modern DNA profiling has now shown that it is at least related to both of these varieties, as they are all descendants of Gouais Blanc.

And I’m telling you all this for what reason?

Well, I came across a Hungarian Kékfrankos that is pretty tremendous. The 2010 Weninger Kékfrankos Balf is a charming wine with great varietal character. The wine is from Sopron, specifically the small village of Balf, which is on Lake Neusiedl. The warm thermal springs of the area are loaded with minerals and not only contribute to ripening the grapes fully, but also add levels of complexity and minerality to the finished wine.


The grapes are selectively hand harvested with only native yeast strains used to start the fermentation, which takes place in stainless steel tanks. After three weeks of maceration, the wine is pumped into large oak barrels, held in passive, non-climate-controlled cellars. The wine is then put through full malolactic fermentation to soften the acids and broaden the palate. After a year in barrel, the wine is bottled without being fined or filtered.

The vineyards are estate owned with vines varying in age from 13 to 40 years. Viticulture is biodynamic and uses no pesticides. In 2010 there were 6,300 bottles produced, a comparatively small production by most modern winery standards.

The wine is delightful. Bright, lively fruit dances on your palate, held aloft by firm, crisp acidity. Fresh cherry with dark notes of rose petal and violets abound. On the finish, loads of black pepper and allspice combine in layers of complexity. Ideal for summer – the wine takes a slight chill well and the spicy finish echoes well the tastes of the grill.

At an average bottle price of $9.99 before the discount, you know that 12 of those 6,300 bottles will find a home in my wine cellar!


2012 Castello di Neive “Santo Stefano” Barbera d’Alba DOC, Italy

My apologies for touting yet another Italian Barbera, but when I find something truly remarkable, I feel compelled to share.

Castello di Neive is among my favorite Piedmont producers. Their wines are of the highest quality and have a very traditional flavor profile. That said, the wines are somewhat pragmatic, meaning that for all their traditional character they embody modernity.

For some background, I adapted the following from their web site…

Castello di Neive, and its 150 acre estate are owned by the Stupino family – Anna, Giulio, Italo and Piera. They were all born in Neive, and so were their parents, grandparents and great-grandparents. The history of the company began when their father, Giacomo, started to capitalize on both his experience as a surveyor and on his knowledge of the area, to purchase, whenever possible, vineyards and land in extremely favorable locations. In the small cellars of their home, they began the first production of wine for domestic consumption, which they sold in bulk. The first vineyards Giacomo acquired, which have become synonymous with great wines, were Messoirano, Montebertotto, Basarin, Valtorta, I Cortini. In 1964 they purchased the castle with its spacious cellars, and a few more vineyards in Santo Stefano and Marcorino, as well as additional land from the castle’s previous owner, Count Guido Riccardi Candiani.

The acquisition of all these vineyards, along with the purchase of the historic castle was a turning point, which drove the family to renovate the castle’s cellars, and to make significant investments to restore the vineyards, long neglected by previous owners. With the upgrade in the cellar came the introduction of more modern wine making methods. When Giacomo died, in 1970, Giulio and Italo took over operations and oversaw the transition from tenant farming to direct management of the land. With the help of a talented and skilled winemaker, Talin Brunettini, Castello di Neive began to bottle its own wines instead of selling them off in bulk for sale by others.

Castello di Neive has continued to lead in Piedmont, establishing clonal programs for the native Arneis grape. The wines from Castello di Neive are among some of the finest in Piedmont, unparalleled except for a select few producers.

My favorite wines of Castello di Neive have always been their Barbaresco, but their prices have always reflected the importance of their single vineyard holdings. Meaning, I can’t buy them very often…

So imagine my excitement when their single vineyard Barbera, the Santo Stefano popped up on the radar screen at a very reasonable price. The Santo Stefano vineyard, as noted above was purchased in 1964 and the story on the web site tells of a piece of property that was fallow and in a questionable state. Apparently, the patriarch, Giacomo brushed aside the warnings, purchased the land and proceeded to restore the site and plant vines. Within short order, the vineyard was producing amazing Barbera.


The 2012 wine is a relatively modest 10,000 bottle production, from 20 – 30 year old vines, grown on calcareous marl soil. The vineyard is hand harvested using traditional wooden boxes. The grapes are put through a traditional fermentation process, with pump over, for about 10 days and then allowed to macerate for another 10 days. Once complete, the wine is moved to large, 1,000 gallon French oak barrels to age for 8 months. The wine is then bottled, unfiltered and held for another 3 months before release.

When I first tasted the wine, I was pleasantly surprised at the depth of fruit and the lushness of the palate. Black cherry and blackberry saturate the flavor, with well integrated tannin to give the wine structure and balance. Layers of complexity on the finish, with hints of anise and dried herbs maintain a connection to the traditional flavor characteristics of the Barbera grape. The wine has good aging potential and at $19.99 per bottle before a discount, represents a tremendous value.

Not the cheapest Barbera on the shelf, but certainly one with a fine pedigree and great provenance.


The Road Not Taken

I am constantly telling my friends, students and frankly anyone who will listen to experiment with wine. Thirty plus years ago I would not have been so bold, but today the overall quality and diversity of wine available from all around the globe demands that people take a chance and stray from their comfort zone.

One such wine that deserves attention is the 2014 Lagrein from the Colterenzio Cooperative in Alto Adige, a small region in the northeast corner of Italy. The cooperative was started in 1960 with 28 producers. Over the last 50 years the cooperative has grown to 300 producers and over 300 hectares of land under vine.

The wine comes from the southern part of Alto Adige or the Sudtirol, which is home to some of the Alto Adige’s highest vineyards. Warmer than other more northern areas, the sub region’s climate is conducive to ripening red grapes. Along with the mixed soils of limestone, marl, dolomite and sand, the vines produce grapes of exceptional quality and distinction.

Lagrein is a red grape variety descended from Teroldego and related to Syrah, Pinot Noir and Dureza. It is believed to be native to the Lagarina Valley in Trentino. For many years the grape produced highly tannic wines that were tough and unapproachable. Modern wine making techniques have transformed the wines made from Lagrein into expressive, voluptuous wines with bright, fragrant personalities.


The 2014 Lagrein from Colterenzio is magical. The wine has a lively, fragrant nose with fresh floral notes and hints of herbal sweetness. On the palate the wine is bright and fruity with some dark rose attar and cherry notes. The wine has well-integrated tannin and just enough acid to give it structure. Drinking well, the wine should age well for another 2 to 4 years in the bottle.

Another nice feature of the wine is the price. At $13.99 per bottle before any discount, the wine is a great value and perfect for the summer weather!


In Praise of Older Wine

Despite what the statistics suggest, that better than 87% of fine wine made today is meant to be consumed within one to two years of bottling, frequently the stars align to create a wine that really benefits from continued time in the bottle. My students know that I am a huge proponent of aging wine, including those bottles that do not demand to be aged. I espouse the many benefits of this practice: from allowing a wine time to improve; to the educational value of tasting a wine throughout its life and thereby fully understanding the mystery of wine; to the often jaw-dropping impact of pulling an unavailable gem from the dark reaches of one’s cellar to share with the best of friends.

In my usual perusal of the various wine shop circulars that arrive in my mailbox, my attention was piqued by an “older” wine – a 2005 Barbera del Monferrato from Cantine Valpane, their Perlydia bottling. Now 2005 isn’t particularly old at 10 years, but Barbera is not known to make long-aging wine. I eyed the tasting note from the store and decided that more research was warranted.

Cantine Valpane is a historic winery located in the Monferrato wine making region of Piedmont in northwest Italy. The winery website states that the present owners, the Arditi family have owned the property for over 100 years and during that time have sought to maintain the highest quality, while creating wines, specifically Barbera-based that exemplify the unique character of the Monferrato region. The Valpane vineyards, unlike those in Alba and Asti, the two bastions of Barbera in Piedmont, are planted in soils heavy in limestone and clay, which imparts an earthy minerality often not found in Barbera. Additionally, the DOC rules for Barbera del Monferrato allow for the inclusion of the Friesa grape to the blend, which contributes lively, fragrant touches to the wine.


When one examines how the Cantine Valpane Barbera is produced, it is no surprise that the wine can age and frankly, should age to present its best version of itself. From the Kermit Lynch website:

The grapes are late-harvested from vines that average 5 – 10 years in age. Fermentation takes place in stainless steel and cement tanks and lasts 21-23 days. Following fermentation the wine is further aged 2-5 years in stainless steel and cement tanks before bottling. To ensure optimal smoothness, the wine is aged another year in bottle before its release. No Friesa is used in the blend of the “Perlydia” bottling.(“Perlydia” translates to: “for Lydia,” who is Pietro’s aunt who ran the estate before him.)

My own analysis, 10 years after the wine was made? Simply magnificent. The wine is smooth, mellow and possesses layered complexity with soft fruit, fragrant floral and rustic earthy notes. The wine is clearly Barbera in nature, with bright cherry flavors and a slight bite of acid that gives the wine impressive structure.

The most impressive thing about the wine… the price… at $17.99 per bottle before a discount, this wine is a steal. Very rarely do you get to possess a wine with 10 years of age that shows improvement and the longevity to continue to improve for this price. Where did I find the wine? At my friends at The Wine & Cheese Cask in Somerville, MA – it’s in their July-August Newsletter!


The Jasmine Cocktail

An old friend recently posted a picture of what looked to be a delicious cocktail on Facebook while celebrating in Las Vegas. Upon further inquiry, she divulged that this lovely potation was none other than The Jasmine Cocktail and she proclaimed it wonderful. Not immediately coming to mind, I did some research and found a reference to it in my favorite magazine, Imbibe. Their take is thus: This early 1990’s cocktail from bartender Paul Harrington helped usher in the similarly bright, bitter Negroni riffs that have flowed in recent years.

The recipe that follows is quite alluring…

1 1/2 oz. gin

3/4 oz. fresh lemon juice

1/4 oz. Campari

1/4 oz. Cointreau

Combine ingredients in a shaker with ice and shake to chill. Strain into a chilled glass and garnish with a lemon twist.

(Paul Harrington, Spokane, Washington)

Picture is swiped from my friend’s Facebook post…



The Bronx Cocktail

Still on my orange juice kick, this seems like the perfect cocktail to try…

Pre-prohibition cocktails all have numerous attributions regarding their origins. The Bronx Cocktail, a very well-known pre-prohibition libation is no different. There were no fewer than six possible origins for the cocktail noted in various sources.

The citation that I feel carries the most credibility is one that appears in William “Cocktail” Boothby’s 1908 tome, The World’s Drinks and How to Mix them. Listed as “Bronx Cocktail, Boothby attributes Billy Malloy, Pittsburgh, PA with the original recipe: “one-third Plymouth gin, one-third French vermouth and one-third Italian vermouth, flavored with two dashes of Orange bitters, about a barspoon of orange juice and a squeeze of orange peel. Serve very cold.”

In looking in more contemporary references, one finds this adaptation, which I like the best:

1 oz. of Orange Juice

1/2 oz. of Sweet vermouth

1/2 oz. of Dry vermouth

2 oz. of Gin (London Dry)

Combine all ingredients in a mixing glass with cracked ice. Stir and strain into chilled cocktail glass.



The Bonnie Prince Charlie

The Bonnie Prince Charlie

Believe it or not, I do not keep orange juice around very often. I’m not entirely sure why, but I just don’t. As a result, when we end up with some in the fridge, I usually like to experiment – cocktail-wise. The last time this happened, I played with a few oldies but goodies – the Monkey Gland, Satan’s Whiskers and the Blood and Sand. All quite nice potations that have a Summery splash to them.

I felt like going off book tonight, so I thought about what might be fun. As I looked across the mess that is my bar, I saw it… Drambuie. The history of Drambuie purportedly goes back 267 years. According to the Drambuie website, the origins are thus:

The story of Drambuie begins over 267 years ago in July 1746. Prince Charles Edward Stuart (known also as Bonnie Prince Charlie) was on the run, after defeat at the Battle of Culloden had ended his hopes of restoring the Stuarts to the throne of Great Britain.

The Prince was pursued by the King’s men across the Highlands and Islands of Western Scotland, bravely aided by many Highland Clans. Among them was Clan MacKinnon whose chief, John MacKinnon, helped the Prince escape from The Isle of Skye. In thanks for his bravery the Prince gave John MacKinnon the secret recipe to his personal liqueur, a gift that the Clan were to treasure down the generations. An extraordinary elixir that would, many years later, become known to the world as Drambuie.

Brings a tear to one’s eye… At any rate, I thought about what might work and I decided to riff on the Blood and Sand. Instead of Cherry Heering, I substituted Drambuie. Toss in a dash of something earthy, like Angostura bitters and voila, we have The Bonnie Prince Charlie:

1 oz Scotch Whisky (I used Johnny Walker Red)

1 oz Fresh orange juice

.75 oz Drambuie

2 dashes Angostura bitters

Garnish: Luxardo Maraschino cherry

Add all the ingredients to a shaker and fill with ice. Shake, and strain into a chilled cocktail glass. Garnish.




Grappa… Sometimes just the mention of this spirit brings about the strangest reactions… Most involve exclamations about “jet fuel” and “blindness.” My experience has been that people either love or hate grappa, there is little in between. However, like so many things, people’s real knowledge of grappa, or lack thereof leads to missed opportunities.

Growing up in an Italian household with parents who were children of the Great Depression, we wasted nothing. Now, we weren’t slaughtering our own livestock or anything like that, but my Grandfather did what every self-respecting Italian of his generation did… he made “second wine,” and grappa.

Grappa is a truly Italian product, although every country that produces wine has their version of it (Turkish Raki, for instance). Quite simply, Grappa is brandy, specifically, pomace brandy. Pomace is the collection of material left over once a wine maker presses the contents of their primary fermenting vat. The material at the bottom of the press bears a striking resemblance to a cheesecake and is loaded with all kinds of stuff. Remember this comment as we delve into the method of production for grappa…

With the formation of the European Union, many products have gained protected status – grappa being one of them. As a protected product, there are very strict criteria that define exactly what can and cannot be called “grappa.”

  • First criteria – Grappa must be produced in Italy, or the Swiss Italy, or San Marino.
  • Second criteria – Grappa can only be produced from pomace (unlike traditional brandy, which is distilled from pure wine).
  • Third criteria – Grappa can only be produced from distillation that occurs on the pomace without the addition of water.

The third criteria is what dictates the production method for grappa, which is essentially a steam-distillation process. Traditional distillation involves the direct heating of the fermented agent to vaporize, condense and concentrate alcohol. If this method were applied to pomace, the result would be a cooked, burned mass of post-fermentation materials, with no usable by-product. With steam distillation, steam passes through the fermented material, carrying with it the essential elements that are then condensed as a highly-rarified spirit. The drawback to steam distillation is that larger amounts of methanol are extracted, which is extremely poisonous. This is one reason why homemade grappa earned a reputation for blinding and even killing imbibers. This is also the reason why the Italian government has sought strict laws around who can and cannot make grappa for resale.

Most grappa are clear, signifying that they are not aged in oak, like traditional brandy. The primary reason for this is that the spirit is known for having very subtle aromas and flavors that would otherwise be masked by the presence of wood.

More recently, some producers are experimenting with wood aging, which does produce a grappa with a pronounced hue and a different flavor profile more like brandy.

The production of grappa has definitely benefited by improvements in technology. Early examples of grappa clearly earned their designation as “jet fuel,” with the spirit having a rough, alcoholic presence. As the application of a more refined distillation process was used, the end product became much smoother and more alluring. The introduction of pressurization during the distillation process has allowed for a lower temperature extraction that preserves much more of the delicacy of the essential elements.

Like many things in the wine and spirit world there are many more grappa available today than were in the market only a few years ago. I have been actively seeking out grappa and can happily report on some of my favorites:


Moletto Grappa di Barbera

Mazzetti Altavilla Grappa di Barbera

Jacopo di Poli – Po di Poli – (Grappa from Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc)


Jacopo di Poli – Sarpa di Poli – (Grappa from Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon)

Jacopo di Poli – Grappa da Vinacce di Sassicaia

Marolo – Grappa di Moscato

Marolo – Grappa di Brunello di Montalcino

Marolo Barolo

Marolo – Grappa di Barolo

G. Bertagnolli – Grappa di Amarone


G. Bertagnolli – Grappa di Teroldego


Nonino – Il Merlot di Grappa

Nonino – Il Moscato di Grappa

Nonino – Il Chardonnay di Grappa

I heartily recommend picking up one of the above grappa and sampling a small glass after a nice meal as the perfect digestif in the true Italian tradition. If you are an aficionado of fine spirits, you will not be disappointed.


The Cunningham Cocktail


I love Jazz. The infinite improvisations on time tested melodies that provide inroads into the inner reaches of a musician’s soul. I can endlessly listen to fifty artists put their signature on a classic piece and never grow tired. So too is the art of the cocktail. While I wax poetic about the importance of the exactitude of the classic cocktail, I also revel in the endless riffs that are played on these important tomes.

My curiosity is always peeked by the mixing of strange bedfellows. Scotch Whisky-based cocktails are always challenging and I have done my best over the years to showcase the best of the lot. A while back, one of these classic gems was The Blood and Sand, a Scotch Whisky-based cocktail from the 1920’s that featured orange juice and Cherry Heering in a pleasing salute to Rudolph Valentino.

Imagine my pleasure when I stumbled upon a modern classic by Marco Dionysos, which is clearly a riff on the Blood & Sand – The Cunningham. Offering the perfect example of how mixologists refine a classic, the Cunningham takes the Blood & Sand and moves it to a more ephemeral plane. The addition of blood orange juice and Bénédictine brings an earthy, edgy feel to the cocktail. Truly refreshing, the Cunningham may become my new favorite transitional cocktail…

Ladies and Gentlemen, The Cunningham:

1.5 oz The Famous Grouse Scotch Whisky

.5 oz Fresh lemon juice

.5 oz Fresh blood orange juice

.25 oz Bénédictine

.25 oz Cherry Heering

Garnish: Brandied cherries and a flamed blood orange twist

Add all the ingredients to a shaker and fill with ice. Shake, and strain into a chilled cocktail glass. Garnish with brandied cherries and a flamed blood orange twist.


2010 Poggio Bonelli Chianti Classico, Italy

Having grown up on Chianti poured from the infamous fiasco, or straw flask, I am always elated when I find a bottle of Chianti that merges all the best from the past with all that is good with today’s viticultural techniques.

Since 2000, Chianti Classico has been undergoing a formal “upgrade.” Changes in wine laws were enacted then, all intended to improve the quality, and sales of Chianti Classico wines. Many older properties resisted the changes, but many did embrace the new order and as a result, started producing wines of distinct quality. One such property is Poggio Bonelli – a 16th century wine estate that commands about 160+ acres of very high-quality vineyard in the heart of Chianti Classico.


The estate has been passed down since the Middle Ages, finally ending up in the hands of a large global real estate company, Monte dei  Paschi di Siena. Well-financed with access to talented wine makers and the best technology, the wines of Poggio Bonelli are exceptional. Most notable is the combination of traditional Chianti characteristics with more modern hints – there is an earthy quality with layers of dried cherry and old leather, combined with jammy fruit and exotic spices. The result is just lovely.

At an average per bottle price of $24, finding this gem at Martignetti’s in Brighton MA at $15.99 (before the discount) was, in a word, awesome…

My tasting note:

Jammy nose with blackberry, black cherry, earthy hints. Full-bodied with moderate acidity and firm, dry tannin – well balanced. Dark fruit core with intense cherry, crushed lavender and cedar notes. Long finish – smooth with spice, dried fruit and vanilla on the aftertaste. Drinking well now with 5 to 7 years of aging potential. A super value.



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